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This phase, known as the Middle Academy , strongly emphasized Academic skepticism.

It was characterized by its attacks on the Stoics and their assertion of the certainty of truth and our knowledge of it. It was still largely skeptical, denying the possibility of knowing an absolute truth; both Arcesilaus and Carneades believed that they were maintaining a genuine tenet of Plato. Around 90 BC, Antiochus of Ascalon rejected skepticism, making way for the period known as Middle Platonism , in which Platonism was fused with certain Peripatetic and many Stoic dogmas. In Middle Platonism, the Platonic Forms were not transcendent but immanent to rational minds, and the physical world was a living, ensouled being, the World-Soul.

Pre-eminence in this period belongs to Plutarch. The eclectic nature of Platonism during this time is shown by its incorporation into Pythagoreanism Numenius of Apamea and into Jewish philosophy Philo of Alexandria. In the third century, Plotinus recast Plato's system, establishing Neoplatonism , in which Middle Platonism was fused with mysticism.

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At the summit of existence stands the One or the Good, as the source of all things. Soul, being chained to matter, longs to escape from the bondage of the body and return to its original source. Plotinus' disciple, Porphyry , followed by Iamblichus , developed the system in conscious opposition to Christianity.

The Platonic Academy was re-established during this period; its most renowned head was Proclus died , a celebrated commentator on Plato's writings. The Academy persisted until Roman emperor Justinian closed it in Platonism has had some influence on Christianity through Clement of Alexandria and Origen , [7] and the Cappadocian Fathers.

Platonism was considered authoritative in the Middle Ages. Thomas Aquinas 's philosophy was still in certain respects fundamentally Platonic. With the Renaissance , scholars became more interested in Plato himself.

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Christoplatonism is a term used to refer to a dualism opined by Plato, which holds spirit is good but matter is evil, [12] which influenced some christian churches , though the Bible's teaching directly contradicts this philosophy and thus it receives constant criticism from many teachers in the Christian Church today. According to the Methodist Church , Christoplatonism directly "contradicts the Biblical record of God calling everything He created good. Apart from historical Platonism originating from thinkers such as Plato himself, Numenius, Plotinus, Augustine and Proclus, we also encounter the theory of abstract objects in the modern sense.

Platonism is the view that there exist such things as abstract objects — where an abstract object is an object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and non-mental. Platonism in this sense is a contemporary view. This modern Platonism has been endorsed in one way or another at one time or another by numerous philosophers.

In late modern philosophy , Platonism was defended by logicist Gottlob Frege. Leibniz and Hermann Lotze as inspirations for his position in his Logical Investigations —1. Other prominent contemporary Continental philosophers interested in Platonism in a general sense include Leo Strauss , [16] Simone Weil , [17] and Alain Badiou. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Main article: Platonic Academy. Main article: Middle Platonism. Main article: Neoplatonism.

Related topics. Main article: Neoplatonism and Christianity. In this connection, it is essential to bear in mind that modern platonists with a small 'p' need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato, just as modern nominalists need not accept the doctrines of the medieval Nominalists. Zalta ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. UM Portal. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 10 March Greek philosophers—who believed that spirit is good but matter is evil—also influenced the church, says Randy Alcorn, author of Heaven Tyndale, He coined the term "Christoplatonism" to describe that kind of dualism, which directly contradicts the biblical record of God calling everything he created "good.

Platonized Naturalism", The Journal of Philosophy , 92 10 : — Jane, and Eric O. Springsted, eds. University of Notre Dame Press.

1. The Field and its Significance

Ancient Greek schools of philosophy. Due to their belief being grounded in Platonic thought, the Neoplatonists rejected Gnosticism's vilification of Plato's demiurge , the creator of the material world or cosmos discussed in the Timaeus.

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Although Neoplatonism has been referred to as orthodox Platonic philosophy by scholars like Professor John D. Turner , this reference may be due in part to Plotinus' attempt to refute certain interpretations of Platonic philosophy, through his Enneads. Plotinus believed the followers of gnosticism had corrupted the original teachings of Plato. Despite the influence this philosophy had on Christianity, Justinian I would hurt later Neoplatonism by ordering the closure of the refounded Academy of Athens in Pseudo-Dionysius proved significant for both the Byzantine and Roman branches of Christianity.

His works were translated into Latin by John Scotus Eriugena in the 9th century. From the days of the Early Church until the present, the Orthodox Church has made positive selective use of ancient Greek philosophy, particularly Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics. In the Christian context, Logos takes on a deeper meaning and becomes a name for the second person of the Trinity.

Neoplatonism and Christianity

However, the meanings of words sometimes evolved along different lines. In other cases, philosophical ideas and concepts were sometimes adapted and changed by Christian writers. Any exegetical endeavor trying to unravel the influence of Neo-Platonic thought on Christian theology needs to keep these principles in mind. One should also note that philosophy was used quite differently in the Eastern and Western theological traditions. The writings attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite are among the most enigmatic works of late antiquity.

Byzantine scholars such as Gregory Palamas cited Dionysius especially in matters of Mystical Theology such as theoria, the divine energies and the unknowability of God. Among Orthodox scholars, the later view seems to be shared by such writers as Andrew Louth [6] and Vladimir Lossky.

Marsilio Ficino , who translated Plotinus, Proclus, as well as Plato's complete works into Latin, was the central figure of a major Neoplatonist revival in the Renaissance.

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His friend, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was also a major figure in this movement. Both were students of Jewish mystical Kabbalah , which was heavily influenced by Neoplatonism. Renewed interest in Plotinian philosophy contributed to the rational theology and philosophy of the " Cambridge Platonist " circle B.

Whichcote, R. Cudworth, J. Smith, H.

Plato and Christianity -

More, etc. Renaissance Neoplatonism also overlapped with or graded into various forms of Christian esotericism.

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Christoplatonism is a term used to refer to a dualism opined by Plato, which influenced the Church , which holds spirit is good but matter is evil. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Neoplatonism Reconstructed bust believed to represent Plotinus.